Parser Combinators in Ruby

Parser combinators are a technique common in FP languages for writing parsers - programs that convert textual input into a data structure native to the language. An ubiquitous example is a JSON parser, which almost every modern language has. Parser combinators are small building blocks that you compose together to form larger parsers. They’re nice for a number of reasons, but one is that the parser you end up with is extremely readable - often it looks very close to the formal grammar of the language you’re parsing. This makes it easy to spot bugs and extend in the future.

I won’t give a full introduction to parser combinators here. If you’re not familiar with them, there are a lot of tutorials floating about the internet. I particularly recommend Monadic Parser Combinators by Graham Hutton and Erik Meijer. If you’ve written parsers in the past and found yourself in a bit of a mess of regular expressions and string munging, then you might consider parser combinators as an alternative. In this post I’m going to walk through the creation of a simple parser combinator library in Ruby and use it to build a parser for JSON. The library and JSON parser will each be about 100 LOC.

As an example of what we’re aiming for, here’s a parser written in the combinator style in Haskell:

parseNumberList = brackets (sepBy comma number)

brackets p = between (string "[") (string "]") p
sepBy sep p = do
  first <- p
  rest <- many (sep *> p)
  pure (first : rest)
comma = string ","
between open close inner = do
  val <- inner
  pure val
number = ...

The high level parser parseNumberList is constructed from small building blocks, including several parsers which modify other parsers: these are called combinators. brackets parses an open bracket, the given inner parser, and a closing bracket. between is a generic version of brackets which runs the three parsers provided in the same order. Because these parsers are generic we can reuse them in many places. For example, if we wanted a parser for a two-element tuple like (1,2) we might write:

tuple = parens do
  fst <- number
  snd <- number
  pure (fst, snd)
parens p = between (string "(") (string ")") p

The end result tends to be a very small amount of code and a very clear description of the language.

To parse in the combinator style you need two things: first class functions and custom flow control. In Ruby we’ll model these respectively using Procs and exceptions.

I’ll briefly describe Procs and exceptions - feel free to skip this part if you’re comfortable with them.


Ruby’s equivalent of a first class function is the Proc (or lambda):

add_one = proc { |x| x + 1 }

=> 2

id = proc { |x| x }

=> "ruby"

proc takes as argument a block, which is the body of the function. Any parameters in the block become formal parameters to the constructed Proc. Procs have access to any variables in scope when they are constructed, meaning that they form closures.

a = 1
inc_a = proc { a += 1 }

> a
=> 3


When we write two sequential statements in a Ruby method, they will be executed in the usual imperative order.

def a
  puts "a"

def b
  puts "b"

def foo

> foo
=> nil

a has no way to control whether b is executed after it. However if a raises an exception then this changes: control will jump out of the method and any enclosing methods until we reach a matching rescue statement. We can abuse this feature to control how our parsers behave. Specifically, if a parser is made of several smaller parsers combined together, and one of the smaller parsers fail, we want the entire parser to fail. We want to be able to override this when necessary, but this should be the default.

The Core

Armed with these language features we can start to construct our parser. We’ll assume that the input is always a string, and we’ll track our progress through it with an index loc (lazy shorthand for “location”).

class Parser
  def initialize(input)
    @input = input
    @loc = 0

  # ...

The intuition is that our parsing methods will “consume” portions of the input, advancing the index as they do. Subsequent parses will only see the remaining input.

def input

def consume(num)
  @loc += num

If a parse fails, we want to reset the index back to where it was before we started that parse. This behaviour is called backtracking, and it isn’t the only option in parser design, but we use it here because I think this behaviour makes it easier to write clear parsers.

To provide this behaviour we define a method backtrack, which takes a block. If that block fails to parse, backtrack will reset the index after it. How do we know if a parse has failed? We’ll use an exception. This has the nice property that if the parser consists of multiple parts and the first part fails, the subsequent parts will be skipped. Each parser doesn’t need to check if the previous parser succeeded, because if it had failed it would have raised an exception and we would never reach the second parser. This is what allows us to write parsers cleanly (as you’ll see in a minute) without any plumbing of checking return values between one and the next.

def backtrack
  loc_before = @loc
rescue ParseFailure
  @loc = loc_before
  # re-raise the exception
  # to propagate the failure

These three methods form the core of our parser: everything else can be constructed using them. First up, let’s define the most permissive parser: take. take(n) will parse n characters from the input. It will only fail if there are fewer than n characters left.

def take(len)
  match = input.byteslice(0, len)
  if match.length < len
    raise ParseFailure, "expected #{len} characters, but saw #{match.length}"


We first fetch len characters, raising ParseFailure if we don’t get enough characters. We then consume the characters we’ve just fetched, and return them. This is how it behaves:

p ="what a great example")
=> Parser::ParseFailure:
   expected 100 characters, but saw 20
=> "what"
=> " a"

Next up: string literals.

def string(pat)
  backtrack do
    s = take(pat.length)
    fail(pat, s) unless s == pat


def fail(expected, actual)
  raise ParseFailure, "expected #{expected.inspect} but saw #{actual.inspect} (#{@loc})"

string("abc") will succeed if the input starts with the string abc. To implement it, we take enough characters to match the length of the given string, and then check if they match. If they don’t, we raise ParseFailure (via a convenience method fail). We wrap all of this in backtrack to ensure that when we do fail, we roll back the index.

Finally, we’ll want a way to repeatedly parse characters matching some predicate. This is take_while1:

def take_while(pred)
 input.chars.take_while(&pred).join.tap { |match| consume(match.length) }

We can now write simple parsers, such as this:

class PurchaseOrder < Parser
  def run
    string "BUY: "
    take_while proc { |c| c != "\n" }

>"BUY: eggs").run
=> "eggs"


To complete our parser, we need ways to compose these primitives together. This is where we’ll meet our combinators. The first is either:

def either(parser1, parser2)
  backtrack { }
rescue ParseFailure

either takes two parsers as arguments. It tries the first, and if that fails it backtracks and tries the second.

run = proc do |input|
  p =
    proc { p.string("foo") },
    proc { p.string("bar") },

=> "foo"
=> "bar"
  expected "bar" but saw "cat" (3)

Next we have zero_or_more:

def zero_or_more(parser)
  matches = []
  loop { matches << backtrack { } }
rescue ParseFailure

zero_or_more takes a parser and tries to apply it as many times as possible, returning an array of results. It always succeeds, as the parser can match zero times. This is analogous to the * regex operator.

run = proc do |input|
  p =
  p.zero_or_more(proc { p.string("a") })

=> ["a"]
=> ["a", "a", "a", "a"]
=> []

If we want the behaviour of regex +, we can use at_least_one:

def at_least_one(parser)
  first =
  rest = zero_or_more(parser)
  [first, *rest]

at_least_one is identical to zero_or_more except that the parser must succeed at least once.

The last combinator we’ll look at is sep_by, which is the same as sepBy in the Haskell example from the start. Given a separator and a parser, it will try to parse repeated instances of the parser interspersed with the separator (which is itself a parser).

def sep_by(separator, parser)
  first = begin
            backtrack { }
          rescue ParseFailure
            return []

  combined = proc do
  rest = zero_or_more combined
  [first, *rest]
run = proc do |input|
  p =
    proc { p.string(",") },
    proc { p.take(1) },

=> []
=> ["1", "2", "3"]
=> ["1", "2", "3", "4"]

That’s basically it! There are a couple more combinators we could define, like optional, one_of and between, but they are straightforward. Let’s look instead at writing a real world parser with this tooling.

Parsing JSON

We’re going to write a mostly-compliant JSON parser. It won’t handle unicode and its floating point behaviour will be a bit broken, but it will otherwise work correctly. I’ve tested it against the fixtures in the JSON Parsing Test Suite and it passes 109 of the 141 y_ tests (samples that must be accepted by the parser). In total, the whole parser is 119 lines long.

To start, we define our class and entrypoint

class JsonParser < Parser
  def run

json_value parses, well, any JSON value.

def json_value
  one_of [

one_of is a combinator that acts like a variadic either: it will try each parser in turn until one succeeds. Each of the parsers given to it is a method on our class, so we convert them to first class objects using Object#method. This will allow us to #call them just like Procs. We’ll walk through each of these methods in turn.

def object
  inner = proc do
    kvs = sep_by method(), method()
  between proc { token "{" },
          proc { token "}" },

def token(str)
  string(str).tap { skip_spaces }

def skip_spaces
  take_while(proc { |c| [" ", "\n"].include?(c) })

object uses between to parse the opening and closing brackets. Inside the brackets we parse a series of key-value pairs. We use sep_by with a separator of comma (which does what you’d expect), and an inner parser of key_value_pair. This gives us a nested array which we convert to a Hash before returning. To parse the brackets we use token, which is a wrapper around string which consumes any trailing whitespace. We’ll use it throughout the parser - it allows us to largely ignore whitespace and keep things concise.

def key_value_pair
  key = quoted_string
  token ":"
  value = json_value
  [key, value]

def quoted_string
  str = between proc { string "\"" },
                proc { token "\"" },
                proc { take_while(proc { |c| c != "\"" }) }

key_value_pair is a string enclosed in quotes followed by a semicolon, followed by any JSON value. We naïvely assume that a string is any sequence of characters excluding the double quote character. This obviously doesn’t cater for escape characters, but we’ll conveniently ignore that. Note that we can’t use token for the opening quote in quoted_string because any trailing whitespace after that character forms part of the string we’re trying to parse.

That’s JSON objects, then. Next up, arrays:

def array
  res = between proc { token "[" },
                proc { token "]" },
                proc { sep_by method(), method() }

We again use between to handle the enclosing brackets, and inside them we just parse a series of JSON values separated by commas.

Booleans and nulls are very simple:

def boolean
  bool = either proc { token "true" }, proc { token "false" }
  bool == "true"

def null
  token "null"

And all that’s left is numbers. JSON has one number type, which is the float. Parsing floats is a bit complex as we have to deal with positive/negative signs, decimals and exponents, but we can cater for all of that without a huge amount of code. It is, however, a little less clear than what we’ve covered so far. I’ll leave it as an exercise to work out what we’re doing here - hopefully it’s not too hard!

def number
  sign = optional method()
  result = integer
  decimals = optional(proc { string "."; integer })
  exponent = optional(proc do
    either(proc { string "e" }, proc { string "E" })

  result = result.to_f if decimals || exponent
  result += (decimals.to_f / (10**decimals.to_s.length)) if decimals
  result *= 10**exponent.to_f if exponent
  sign == "-" ? 0 - result : result

def signed_integer
  sign = optional method()
  n = integer
  sign == "-" ? 0 - n : n

INTEGERS = (0..9).map(&)
def integer
  int = proc do
    char = take 1
    fail("one of #{INTEGERS}", char) unless INTEGERS.include?(char)


  numstr = at_least_one int

def sign
  either proc { token "-" },
         proc { token "+" }

That’s the whole thing. Let’s try it out on some JSON."{}").run
=> {}"[]").run
=> []"4").run
=> 4<<EOF).run
  "a":   "sample",
  "json"  : "object"
=> {"a"=>"sample", "json"=>"object"}<<EOF).run
  "a": "sample",
  "json": "object",
  "with": [
    { "two": "three" }
=> {
     "a" => "sample",
     "json" => "object",
     "with" => [
       { "two" => "three" }
   }"bad input").run
=> Parser::ParseFailure: expected one [
  #<Method: JsonParser#object>,
  #<Method: JsonParser#array>,
  #<Method: JsonParser#quoted_string>,
  #<Method: JsonParser#boolean>,
  #<Method: JsonParser#null>,
  #<Method: JsonParser#number>
from lib/parser.rb:60 `one_of'

And that’s it! A (mostly) complete JSON parser in around 100 LOC. Hopefully that gives you an idea of how you can take these parsing techniques and apply them outside of functional programming languages.


There’s one final thing to address, and that is performance. Ruby isn’t known for its speed, and for tasks like this it often delegates to an underlying C library to do the heavy lifting - this is the case for most JSON, YAML and XML parsers. The parser we’ve written here is, comparatively, extremely slow: parsing a 100KB JSON document on my laptop takes 3.5 seconds compared to ~0.15 seconds using the Ruby standard library JSON parser2. I’m not yet sure whether this is due to slow string indexing, repeated backtracking, overuse of exceptions, or something else - it would be quite interesting to find out. Until then, just keep in mind that whilst these techniques do translate, the tradeoffs might be very different between languages!

You can find all the code for this post here.

  1. A more idiomatic definition of take_while would take a block argument rather than a proc, so that you can write take_while { |c| ... }. I’ve not done this here to keep the usage of Procs consistent, but you could certainly do so in the real world.↩︎

  2. To be specific, the ext implementation, which is 2000 lines of C, rather than the pure Ruby implementation.↩︎